The 88th Victoria Fusiliers of Victoria badge would have been an officer’s busby badge and depicts the flaming grenade, a century’s old symbol of fusiliers. Overlaid in silver is a maple leaf representing Canada, with a cougar symbolizing British Columbia. The Latin motto is IN VIRTUE VICTORIA or “in virtue victorious.”
The 31 British Columbia Horse (BCH) badge is a depiction of the setting sun over the Pacific. The crown over the setting sun depicts loyalty to Britain. The Latin motto ARMA PACIS FULCRA translates to “armed strength for peace.”
Badges like these would likely have their design origin with the local regiment drawing on traditional and local symbolism, submitted to Ottawa for approval, then forwarded to the manufacturer. Quality of manufacture would depend on the rank.